Sunday, March 16, 2008

Digital vs. Analog Volume Contro

The volume control in digital processors (or CD players) can be implemented in the analog or the digital domain. That is, the analog signal can be put through a standard volume-control knob as is found on a preamplifier, or the volume can be adjusted by performing mathematical operations on the digital data representing the music.

Before deciding a digital processor with volume control, you should know the tradeoffs inherent in each approach. An analog volume control can slightly degrade the signal - no volume control is perfectly transparent - and can introduce small channel balance errors at certain volume settings. For example, when the volume is turned very low, the left channel may be half a dB louder than the right. This situation could reverse as the volume is turned up.

A digital volume control has its own problems. Each 6dB reduction in volume from the maximum setting throws away one bit of resolution. A low volume setting (say, 30dB of attenuation) is equivalent to discarding five bits. If you had true 20-bit resolution in your D/A converter, you'd be listening to 15-bit audio instead of 20-bit. The lower the volume setting, the greater the loss in resolution.

Digital volume control such as DS1669 from Dallas Semiconductor is actually easier and cheaper to implement than analog volume control. Most digital filters have a volume control built-in; the designer need only send a control code to the filter chip to adjust the volume. An analog control requires a potentiometer (the volume control itself), another hole in the chassis, and wiring between the circuit board and potentiometer.

Monday, March 3, 2008

Quickest Reviews on Electronics

Are we searching for unnecessary information and over loading ourselves? When so much information was not available to us, we could live, isn't it? Then why do we search for any and everything online? Does that make our life better? In the earlier days, people took time to write letters to each other. Some people might think that carpal tunnel syndrome is a new condition of the information technology age, born from long hours of computer keyboarding, but carpal tunnel is not new, it just seems to appear more often because the nature of work has changed. There is a general belief that working for extended periods of time using a computer will lead to an increase in carpal tunnel syndrome, and that jobs such as data entry lead to higher risk of carpal tunnel syndrome.

Depending on the size of your business keep in mind you may need to investigate an accounting software solution that will allow multiple user access and log in, so you can keep track of who is making entries when. One of the side effects of allowing any user access to the source code is that the cost of acquiring the software in the first instance is massively reduced. Open Source Software (OSS) is software that is available under a special license that allows everyone to access the program code as well as the executable program.

If you're not one of the computer-savvy website builders out in the realm of the World Wide Web, or a presentation developer at a Fortune 500 company, think about this: Over 90% of all computers in the world have Flash Player installed in them to adequately view websites and other mediums that incorporate Flash into their pages. Pen drives, chip sticks, thumb drives or USB keys are other terms given to USB flash drives and consist of a small printed circuit board encased either in sturdy plastic or metal; the latter makes flash drives even more hard-wearing. Essentially the same, USB flash drives are available in a variety of styles and colors and even with various uses but all work the same.

Cell phone radiation protection devices come in a variety of shapes, sizes and styles, but their purpose is the same, completely eradicate the entrance of EMF into the head. Compared to conventional sources of light, LED bulbs and other similar LED devices can directly emit light of a certain color without the aid of color filters. And if you are looking at the ground directly in front of you, then you will be trying to look thru the light rather than where the beam might be pointed and a poor Survivor Contestant could easily step on a snake and be out of the contest.

Everyone who has an ISP, understands, or at least knows about how hackers use viruses, Trojans and other web nastiness, to infect and mess up your computer. Recently we read about the Hackers annual convention this year in Las Vegas, DEFCON. It seems that as days go by people are becoming more and more concerned with the security of their money and protecting their personal and financial information from identity thieves and hackers. To be safe is to stay with the latest antivirus and spyware.

In high tension power transmission, where huge towers carry the cables which brings the power to cities, towns and villages, step up transformers are used as the power leaves the power stations and as they approach the destinations, the voltage is stepped down to the required mains supply, before it is distributed amongst the consumers. If the device you are going to operate is a high power heating element or mechanical motor such as a hair dryer or iron, you will need a converter to run those appliances. Sharp marketers forge stronger connections with their constituents by building deeper relationships that result in trust, and this trust is built on the four Ps of high voltage communications.


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